Paper: Chemically deposited antimony sulfide selenide thin film photovoltaic prototype modules

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Authors: P. K. Nair,  José Diego Gonzaga Sánchez, Laura Guerrero Martínez, Perla Yoloxóchitl García Ayala, Ana Karen Martínez Peñaloza, Alessandra Beauregard León, Yareli Colín García, José Campos Álvarez, and M. T. S. Nair

Link: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 8 (6) Q89-Q95 (2019)

We present thin film antimony sulfide selenide prototype photovoltaic modules of area, seven cm2 and conversion efficiency (η) of 3.5%. The thin films of Sb2SxSe3-x (x, 0.8–1.6) of 120–180 nm in thickness were deposited on FTO/CdS(80 nm) substrates at 80°C from chemical bath containing potassium antimony tartrate, thioacetamide and sodium selenosulfate. Thin film of CdS of 80 nm in thickness was deposited from a chemical bath at 80°C during 65 min on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO). The solar cell structure FTO/CdS/Sb2SxSe3-x/C had colloidal graphite paint of area, 0.7 cm× 0.7 cm. This cell structure was heated at 300°C during 30 min in a nitrogen ambient to create a carbon-doped antimony chalcogenide layer. Silver paint was applied to the carbon electrode and on FTO around it. Prototype modules had seven series connected cells of one cm2 each with a total area of seven cm2. Solar cell with varying composition of Sb2SxSe3-x along its thickness had a η of 3.88% at an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.44 V and short circuit current density of 18.3 mA/cm2. Prototype modules lighted-up blue light emitting diodes at a power, 5–15 mW.
  • The best solar cell is:   Voc = 441 mV, Jsc = 18.34 mA/cm2, FF = 0.48 and efficiency = 3.88 % measured under standar conditions of 1 sun (Solar simulator). 
  • Application of carbon paint over chalcogenide layer and subsequent heating of the entire cell structure would create a carbon-doped antimony chalcogenide layer


Device fabrication 
  • Substrate:  TEC7 
  • Window layer:  CdS by chemical deposition (80 nm)
  • Absorber layer: Sb-S-Se by sequential chemical deposition  (180 nm)
  • Back contact: Graphite paint (SPI) / Silver paint (N2 heat treatment, 300 ºC) 


Characterization techniques 
  • EDS – Over finished solar cells 
  • GIXRD – Over solar cell 
  • T and R – Optical  for calculation of absorption coefficient, bandgap  and photogenerated current (JL) 
  • JC curve for solar cell and mini-modules
  • EQE for solar cells 


  • This work is open for improvements in all the constitutive components of the solar cell device. 


Jesus Capistran

Developing thin-film solar cells

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